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Rabu, 01 Juli 2009

THE DEFINITION AND BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICs

THE DEFINITION AND BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICs



The Definition of Linguistics.

Linguistics is study of language.

Linguistics is concerned with human language as a universal and recognizable part of human behavior and of the human abilities. Raja T. Nasr (1984).

Linguistics is competence as being a persons potential to speak a language, and his or her linguistics performance as the realization of that potential. Monica Crabtree & Joyce Powers (1994).

The Branches of linguistics

1. General linguistic generally describes the concepts and categories of a particular language or among all language. It also provides analyzed theory of the language.

Descriptive linguistic describes or gives the data to confirm or refute the theory of particular language explained generally.

2. Micro linguistic is narrower view. It is concerned internal view of language itself (structure of language systems) without related to other sciences and without related how to apply it in daily life. Some fields of micro linguistic:

a. Phonetics, the study of the physical properties of sounds of human language

b. Phonology, the study of sounds as discrete, abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning

c. Morphology, the study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified

d. Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences

e. Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences

f. Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used (literally, figuratively, or otherwise) in communicative acts

g. Discourse analysis, the analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed)

h. Applied linguistic is the branch of linguistic that is most concerned with application of the concepts in everyday life, including language-teaching.

3. Macro linguistic is broadest view of language. It is concerned external view of language itself with related to other sciences and how to apply it in daily life. Some fields of micro linguistic:

a. Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors that place a discourse in context.

b. Developmental linguistics, the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood.

c. Historical linguistics or Diachronic linguistics, the study of language change.

d. Language geography, the study of the spatial patterns of languages.

e. Evolutionary linguistics, the study of the origin and subsequent development of language.

f. Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying language use.

g. Sociolinguistics, the study of social patterns and norms of linguistic variability.

h. Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the area of Speech-Language Pathology.

i. Neurolinguistics, the study of the brain networks that underlie grammar and communication.

j. Biolinguistics, the study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals compared to human language.

Computational linguistics, the study of computational implementations of linguistic structures.

Source : the essencial of linguistics scince raja t nasr. (1984)

language files, monica crabtree & joyce powers (1994).

15 komentar:

  1. makasih postingan nya sangat membantu saya mengerjakan tugah,, terimakasih bnyak ^_^

    BalasHapus
  2. windi arisandi5 Juli 2013 05.40

    saya jg mengucapkan banyak terima kasih,,atas postingan'y tugas saya dapat terselesaikan...sukron...

    BalasHapus
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    BalasHapus
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    BalasHapus
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    BalasHapus

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